Choosing the Right Strategy Between 1P and 3P on eCommerce

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Head of eCommerce, Key Account Managers, Supply Chain Managers


In the dynamic realm of eCommerce, businesses face pivotal decisions when determining the most suitable selling strategy on platforms. Opting between operating as a first-party (1P) vendor or a third-party (3P) seller necessitates careful consideration of various factors that can profoundly influence business outcomes. In this comprehensive guide, we will provide detailed insights on factors to consider when deciding between a 1P and 3P strategy on eCommerce platforms, encompassing business goals, product type, brand positioning, and available resources.

Business Goals

Understanding overarching business objectives is fundamental in determining the appropriate selling strategy on eCommerce platforms.

  • Brand Growth vs. Revenue Generation: Data from Statista reveals that global eCommerce sales are projected to reach $6.4 trillion by 2024, underscoring the immense revenue potential in the digital marketplace. For businesses prioritizing brand growth and establishing direct consumer relationships, a 1P strategy may be preferable. This approach allows for deeper brand immersion and control over the customer experience. Conversely, for those aiming to maximize revenue and expand market reach rapidly, a 3P approach offers greater scalability and flexibility.
  • Market Penetration vs. Margin Optimization: The choice between market penetration and margin optimization depends on strategic priorities. According to eMarketer, eCommerce sales in the United States alone are expected to surpass $1 trillion by 2022, highlighting the vast opportunities for market expansion. A 1P strategy facilitates market penetration through platform-supported marketing initiatives and promotional campaigns. Conversely, a 3P approach enables sellers to optimize profit margins by adjusting pricing dynamically and responding swiftly to market fluctuations.

Product Type

The nature of the products being sold is a crucial determinant in selecting the most suitable selling strategy on eCommerce platforms.

  • Exclusive or Niche Products: For businesses offering exclusive or niche products with limited distribution channels, a 1P strategy may provide better control over branding, pricing, and distribution. According to Forbes, niche eCommerce markets have experienced significant growth, with sectors such as health and wellness, beauty, and pet products witnessing surging demand. Conversely, if the goal is to reach a broader audience and leverage the platform’s existing customer base, a 3P approach can offer greater exposure and market visibility.
  • Commoditized Products: Commoditized products, characterized by high competition and price sensitivity, may benefit from the flexibility and agility afforded by a 3P strategy. According to Digital Commerce 360, consumer electronics, apparel, and home goods are among the top-selling product categories in eCommerce. Third-party sellers can adjust pricing dynamically to remain competitive and capitalize on market fluctuations, driving sales volume and revenue growth.

Brand Positioning

Consideration of the desired brand positioning and perception in the marketplace is crucial when choosing between a 1P and 3P strategy.

  • Brand Control and Image: Maintaining strict control over brand messaging, presentation, and customer experience is paramount for businesses prioritizing brand integrity. A study by Nielsen found that 59% of consumers prefer to buy new products from brands they trust, highlighting the importance of brand consistency and authenticity. A 1P strategy enables direct brand interactions and ensures consistent product quality, fostering consumer trust and loyalty. However, if the brand is positioned as collaborative and inclusive, a 3P approach may align better with this ethos, fostering diverse seller partnerships and offerings.
  • Customer Trust and Authenticity: Building trust and authenticity with consumers is essential for long-term success in eCommerce. According to a survey by Edelman, 81% of consumers say that trust in a brand is a deciding factor in their purchase decisions. A 1P strategy instills confidence in consumers through direct brand interactions and stringent quality control measures. Conversely, third-party sellers must prioritize transparency, customer reviews, and seller ratings to establish credibility and trustworthiness in the marketplace.

Resources Available

Assessment of internal capabilities, resources, and infrastructure is critical in determining the feasibility of a 1P or 3P strategy.

  • Operational Capacity: Evaluating the organization’s ability to manage inventory, fulfill orders, and handle customer inquiries effectively is essential. According to McKinsey, optimizing operational efficiency can lead to cost savings of up to 20% in eCommerce logistics. A 1P strategy may require significant investments in warehousing, logistics, and customer support infrastructure to ensure seamless order fulfillment and delivery. Conversely, a 3P approach leverages existing platform resources for fulfillment and customer service, minimizing operational overhead and streamlining processes.
  • Financial Investment: Consideration of upfront costs, ongoing expenses, and revenue potential is crucial in selecting the appropriate selling strategy. A 1P strategy typically entails higher initial investments in inventory procurement, platform fees, and marketing initiatives. In contrast, a 3P approach offers a more cost-effective entry point with lower capital requirements and reduced financial risk.


Choosing between a first-party (1P) and third-party (3P) selling strategy on eCommerce platforms requires meticulous analysis and alignment with overarching business goals, product type, brand positioning, and available resources. By considering these factors comprehensively and leveraging insights from data and industry trends, businesses can make informed decisions that optimize market penetration, revenue generation, brand equity, and operational efficiency.

Ultimately, the ideal selling strategy may evolve over time as market dynamics, consumer preferences, and business priorities shift. Continuous evaluation, adaptation, and optimization are essential to capitalize on emerging opportunities and navigate challenges effectively in the ever-evolving eCommerce landscape. With a strategic approach tailored to specific business objectives and market realities, businesses can unlock the full potential of eCommerce platforms as engines of growth, innovation, and success in the digital age.


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